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23 Maui Whale Watch Magazine • WhaleWatchingOnMaui.com This is an extremely energetic display where the humpback throws its tail out of the water in a crack-the-whip fashion. In the process, it slaps its peduncle (the muscular rear portion of the body) on the surface as it crashes back into the water with astounding force. This can be done by escort males to ward off a particularly challenging male. Tail Throw PEDUNCLE SLAP A fluke up dive occurs when a whale lifts its tail upward as it begins to dive, revealing the ventral (underside) area, or the flukes. Researchers photograph the flukes to identify individual whales. It is usually a signal that the surface activity is over and that the whale is diving down underwater for a longer period of time. Fluke Up A TYPE OF DIVE This can commonly be seen in competitive or surface- active groups when males are competing for a female. This is where the whale opens its mouth wide enough for you to see the baleen (humpback's natural food filtering system) and closes its jaws, clapping them together. They do this with so much force and vigor that you can often even hear a loud "snap." Jaw Clap AGGRESSION Head lunging is clearly competitive behavior where a humpback thrusts its head forward while raised above the water, often landing on another male (ouch!). This behavior is common in groups of whales where male escorts and challengers are competing for proximity to a female, or for hierarchy within a group. Lunge HEAD SLAPPING Whales are air-breathing mammals, and a blow is when the whale exhales air and water from its nostrils (called blowholes), producing a spray that can reach up to 15 feet in height. Humpback whales have two blowholes on the top of their heads and will typically blow between two and ten times before diving back under the surface. Blow SPOUTING As whales come up to breathe, the motion with which they rise may cause the top hump of their back to be exposed above the water, often followed by their tail flukes. Typically a peduncle arch will be followed by a dive back down. This rounding behavior is how people came to name these whales "humpbacks." Round Out PEDUNCLE ARCH HUMPBACK BEHAVIOR Although there are hundreds of subtle behaviors displayed by humpbacks, the ones listed below are the most common:

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